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Facebook的发币阳谋

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,Facebook,这家号称不以赚钱为主要目的的社交巨头坐拥20亿月活用户,并成为年收入超过550亿美元的商业帝国。6月18日,Facebook宣布Libra计划,成为“古典”互联网中第一个试水加密货币的公司。巨头入场,在金融界、科技界、区块链创业群、监管机构圈层,均引发涟漪。,
,“币圈”人士和区块链从业者倍感鼓舞,将其视为主流社会接纳加密货币的里程碑事件,也给遭遇信用质疑的区块链创业打了强心针;传统华尔街金融机构感到压力,除了警惕硅谷科技巨头抢食金融服务业务之外,也担心超大体量数字货币流动,恐扰乱金融秩序。,
,外界探讨Facebook“发币”真实目的的同时,也在观测一场“试验”—— 在数字经济时代,区块链如何实现超大体量的低成本且安全的价值交换;当技术改变商业协同方式之际,平台型公司要如何平衡控制力和开放性,应对市场竞争并保持创新活力;以及在面临各国数据和金融监管的复杂环境下,Facebook的示范效应,可能为加密货币的未来发展,划定怎样的路径和边界,又给创业者和竞争对手留下哪些探索的空间。,
,在距离Libra真正诞生的前夜,马克·扎克伯格位于舞台中心,他似乎怀揣着一份让Facebook变得更好的方案,但解决问题的同时,也正在揭开更多新的质疑。,
,Libra项目是如何诞生的
,
,在美国《连线》杂志的报道版本中,时任即时通信业务Facebook Messenger主管的大卫·马库斯(David Marcus)是Libra项目背后的关键人物。,
,2017年末的多米尼加共和国海滩上,大卫·马库斯(David Marcus)在休假时思考一个长期萦绕的问题:如何建立一个货币互联网——一个全球无间隙的货币网络,可将世界上无法获得银行服务的手机用户纳入这个网路。在思考的过程中,大卫·马库斯觉得Facebook应该开始建立自己的加密货币。,
,他给马克·扎克伯格发去短信,收到后者积极的回复。,
,当时,Facebook已经在即时通信产品中推出转账功能,开始只支持美国地区,两年后拓展至欧洲。主管通信业务的马库斯无疑在开拓支付类新产品方面具有丰富的业内经验。,
,马库斯曾是美国支付业巨头Paypal总裁,在任期间Paypal收购点对点支付公司Venmo母公司Briantree。Venmo目前用户超过4千万,是美国年轻人中流行的小额转账类APP。但和Paypal的逻辑不同,平台型的Facebook不需要直接将支付变现,只需要把用户锁定在自己的平台上,就可以通过主营业务广告获得丰厚收入。,
,马库斯建议Facebook进入加密货币领域之际,正值公司在欧美地区遭遇用户增长停滞的困境中。滥用数据丑闻持续发酵后,Facebook不仅遭遇欧美舆论广泛质疑,而且面临更严苛的监管环境。,
,2018年二季度到来的欧洲“通用数据保护条例”(GDPR),迫使Facebook调整隐私政策,让用户决定自己的数据如何被收集。这将影响Facebook以海量数据分析进行精准广告推送的核心营收逻辑。,
,Facebook的掌门马克·扎克伯格需要一份解决方案——寻找新的用户,并在欧美主要市场重新建立信任。,
,随着区块链技术逐渐从比特币系统中剥离出来,其共识机制、密码学原理和分布式数据存储正在进行大规模的行业应用探索,Facebook似乎找到了路径。,
,2018年1月的个人年度目标公开信上,马克·扎克伯格表示:“(世界)正出现一些重要的反趋势——比如加密技术和加密货币——从中心化的系统中获取力量,并将其重新置于人们手中。但它们有可能更难控制。我有兴趣深入研究这些技术的积极和消极方面,以及如何最好地在我们的服务中使用它们。”,
,当时,还没有多少人料到,Facebook在18个月之后宣布了自己牵头的Libra计划——建立一套简单的、无国界的货币和为数十亿人服务的金融基础设施。,
,根据Libra白皮书,“全球仍有17亿成年人未接触到金融系统,无法享受传统银行提供的金融服务,而这当中,有10亿人拥有手机,近5亿人可以上网”。如果Libra的基础设施可以如愿搭建,将有助于Facebook在非洲、拉美等欠发达国家的用户增长。得益于“网络效应”的Facebook每吸纳一个新的用户,不仅仅是建立一层单一联系,而将增加整个“网络”的价值。,
,在马库斯主动请缨获得首肯之后,便开始迅速进行项目推进。?,
,,领英资料显示,2018年5月开始,马库斯在一年多时间里的职位描述是“探索区块链”,
,在之后的几个月中,大卫·马库斯在公司内外部陆续招募了100名多工程师,并在Facebook的办公楼里觅得一处相对偏僻的办公场所。大卫·马库斯同时雇用了部分经济学家和熟悉监管的律师人员。这个新晋搭建团队面临着扎克伯格提出的两个难题:一来,如何用区块链技术搭建一个全球性的加密货币,尤其关照全球仍没有银行服务的人群;二来,如何让用户放心使用。,
,Libra的分权治理探路
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,Libra项目给出的答案,就是分权治理结构——Libra由Facebook子公司Calibra搭建,但并不单纯由Facebook治理。,
,和外界曾经猜测的由Facebook直接“发币”不同,白皮书中称,Libra由独立的非营利性成员制组织Libra协会负责治理,总部设在瑞士日内瓦。以初始会员共同管理外加验证许可区块链起步的架构,经过精心设计。一来,以平权的姿态回应潜在用户对Facebook恐滥用用户金融数据的质疑;二来,给运行初期,可能出现的“混乱”提供“缓冲期”,包括可能的黑客攻击或系统性风险;三来,在运行初期,由本身已经具备社会公信度和影响力的部分行业巨头或非营利机构担任超级节点的验证方,给监管提供抓手。,
,目前,Libra已有28名会员,包括金融服务巨头万事达卡、打车应用Uber、音乐应用Spotify、以及投资机构Union Square Ventures等。,
,白皮书中披露,Libra计划在2020年上半年将吸纳共同治理的100名初始会员,每个会员投票权不超过1%。Facebook的子公司Calibra也将只拥有1%的投票权。,
,《棱镜》查询瑞士工商信息显示,Facebook在2019年5月2日注册一家金融科技公司名为“Libra Network LLC(Libra网络)”,该有限责任公司的业务范围包括“寻求开发与投资活动和数据分析相关的软件和基础设施,以及与金融和技术相关的其他服务,包括投资、支付、融资、身份管理、数据分析、区块链等。在瑞士注册公司进一步在法律框架上和Facebook有所区分。,
,,图:Facebook于2019年5月在瑞士注册Libra Network有限责任公司,
,瑞士MME律师事务所合伙人Martin Eckert对《棱镜》表示,Libra项目之所以选择以瑞士为总部,由多重原因造成。除了因为瑞士作为中立国,法律体系相对稳定且可预见,也因为“瑞士具有注重隐私的传统”。同时,瑞士监管方正积极研究并回应新商业模式可能带来的法律挑战,对区块链创业友好,“瑞士偏向于将区块链法律纳入现有的民事和金融市场法律体系中,而不是分开管理”。,
,Martin Eckert同时表示,在Facebook牵头成立Libra并吸引大公司成为协会初始会员之后,瑞士将对其他全球巨头公司产生吸引力。,
,但以协会的方式搭建架构,无法打消人们对Facebook能否真正被其制衡的质疑,特别是在协会主管人(Managing Director)?职位仍空缺的情况下,协会的部分核心工作人员的薪水由Facebook提前支付。,
,Libra项目的联合创始人、Facebook子公司Calibra主管马库斯在面对外媒采访时承认,为了让项目起步,协会需要先雇佣一些人来推动进展,主导方Facebook在现阶段承担更大的责任,但同时保证“Facebook不会向协会空降任何雇员”,在2020年Libra正式推出之际,Facebook将会退居“后排”,由协会成员选出的管理委员会来做出决策。,
,值得关注的是,在Libra项目公布后不久,Facebook从年初开始关于内容管理新方案也公布进展,其治理结构和Libra项目存在相通之处。Facebook称,将成立独立的内容监管委员会。,
,该委员会有权推翻Facebook对用户发帖的决定,以解决平台上存在的错误信息等问题。Facebook将在8月份敲定监管委员的章程。在此前的征求意见过程中,外界认为,Facebook员工不应该进入监督委员会。,
,以设立外部独立委员会的方式,对具有争议且有公共性的业务,进行监督和制衡,似乎是扎克伯格面对外部争议的解决之道。,
,它同时面临着两极的评价:Facebook正在推卸责任,或者正在为超出自身能力的争议寻找一个和用户、监管迂回和解的空间。作出折衷方案的另一面是扎克伯格从未打算放弃巩固Facebook的市场地位。,
,在6月末进行的阿斯彭创意节上,被问到“如何理解Facebook似乎正在用自己的标准监管自己”的时候时,身着标志性灰色T恤、牛仔裤的扎克伯格表示,长远来看,更丰富的法规将用于判断业务的边界,“但我们不会等”。,
,巨头入场,银行慌张
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,对于更为激进的区块链创业者来说,对巨头入场的态度,爱恨交织。,
,瑞士的区块链交易所Lykke创始人理查德·欧尔森(Richard Olsen)对《棱镜》表示,Libra项目是“旧瓶装新酒”,在技术上缺少突破性创新,“只有在核心上拥抱金融科技创新,才可能大规模普及。Libra并没有从根本上解决问题”。,
,理查德等区块链创业人员感到缺乏新意,是因为Libra由少数超级节点验证和授权的私有联盟链起步,而不是一开始就采用更为均权的非许可型区块链,类似匿名、公开验证、无审查的比特币。,
,但理查德·欧尔森(Richard Olsen)同时承认,Facebook如此规模的公司进入区块链领域,本身就具有“信号意义”,“就像是给所有全球的大公司吹响号角一样,大家开始重新审视自己的战略,并评估区块链对于他们行业的影响”。,
,最先感受到Libra带来压迫感的是传统的华尔街金融机构。,
,积极拥抱数字经济的美国最大银行摩根大通大约拥有5000万数字客户。而坐拥20亿月活用户的Facebook可以给Libra项目提供远高于5000万的拉新量。在Libra项目公布当周,纽约举行的《财富》头脑风暴论坛上,花旗银行CEO Michael Corbat公开表示,在Libra项目正式宣布之前从未联系过自己的银行,同时称加密货币的问题之一是资金来源的不透明,将不符合合规要求。在Libra协会目前集结的28名初始成员中尚没有任何银行。,
,如果Libra项目顺利搭建,将从传统的金融业务中分食蛋糕。,
,以跨境汇款为例,世界银行在2018年年末的报告称,全球海外务工者跨境汇款资金达到6890亿美元,其中发展中国家的务工跨境汇款金额达到5280亿美元。但因为这批人群往往为中低收入人群,且汇往金融服务不发达的偏远地区,因而需经过代理行或服务商的多次“接力”导致成本居高不下。例如,西联汇款或速汇金的汇款收费大约在7%-10%左右。如果借助区块链和加密货币解决互信和清算的问题,即使交易费用只收取1%,也可以带来可观的收入。,
,Facebook尚未透露,计划同Libra一同推出的电子钱包Calibra的转账或支付收费,但表示会低且透明。而即使不收费,因为Calibra钱包可以嵌入Messenger、Instagram等旗下产品,也可以让Facebook深入更多用户的消费生活。,
,监管态度将划定业务边界
,
,监管的态度,将是决定Facebook加密货币项目“探险疆域”的关键。,
,为贴近合规要求,在Libra的设计上,Facebook已经买下伏笔。一来,马库斯一再强调,Libra只是交易媒介,和比特币目的不同;二来,以具有内在价值的资产储备作为后盾,削弱投机的可能;三来,以联盟的方式治理,并宣传让17亿无法享受传统银行服务的人获得金融服务,让Facebook似乎处在“中立”甚至“公益”的立场。但外界无法忽视Facebook本身上市公司逐利的属性,以及曾经滥用数据的历史。,
,美国瑞泽律师事务所(Reid&Wise)的律师Jonathan Dunsmoor对《棱镜》表示,尽管Facebook以“快速行动,打破成规(Move Fast and break things)”为信条,但在区块链领域创新不能只求速度,“一旦私钥丢失,或系统被攻破,整个行业都将受到冲击”。,
,Jonathan是美国证券法律师,近些年也为数字货币初创公司进行合规方面的法律咨询。,
,Jonathan Dunsmoor称,最令人关注的将是Libra如何应对各国监管,在合规的条件下,顺利运营。在美国,美国证监会(SEC)、商品期货交易委员会(CFTC)、税务局(IRS),均以不同的角度看待加密资产,并各司其职,“比如,如果被看作是大宗商品属性的实用型代币(Utility Token),会受到CFTC的审视,而如果具有分红、投票或分发功能的证券型代币(Security Token)则在美国证监会的审查范围之内。”,
,上周的货币政策新闻发布会上,当问及对Facebook加密货币看法时,美联储主席鲍威尔一方面表示,希望Facebook在推进过程中符合合规的最高要求,但同时认为,目前加密货币并不会影响央行货币政策的实施。投资人和分析师也在等待其他监管机构的态度,以判定Facebook的金融服务尝试,到底能够走多远。,
,国会山部分议员对Facebook或借助加密货币继续巩固市场地位的做法,表示担忧。,
,美国国会众议院金融服务委员会主席沃特斯表示,Facebook应停止开发该项目,直到获得国会和监管机构复核,“Facebook拥有数十亿人的数据,并一再表示无视这些数据的保护和谨慎使用,随着加密货币的宣布,Facebook正在继续不受限制的扩张,并将覆盖范围继续扩展到其用户的生活中”。,
,参议院银行委员会成员谢罗德·布朗通过声明称:“Facebook已经过于庞大过于强大,我们不能允许Facebook在没有监督的情况下从瑞士银行账户中,运行风险更高的新加密货币。”,
,上述两个委员会将分别在7月16日和7月17日对Facebook牵头的Libra项目举行国会听证,也显示法律制定者对巨头入场加密货币的警惕,特别在反洗钱和数据隐私保护方面查漏补缺的期望。Libra项目的联合创造人大卫·马库斯称,愿意出席接受质询,目前尚不清楚扎克伯格是否一同出席。,
,在2019年3月,面对数据滥用的质疑,马克·扎克伯格曾经公开表态,欢迎监管。这位曾经在IPO路演时也习惯灰色帽衫而被质疑“傲慢自我”的创业者,已经学会在必要的场合穿上西装,以显示成熟可信的一面。,
,,扎克伯格曾经在2018年4月就数据泄露丑闻赴国会接受听证质询

zuo zhe kang lu, feng mian dong fang IC,, Facebook, zhe jia hao cheng bu yi zhuan qian wei zhu yao mu di de she jiao ju tou zuo yong 20 yi yue huo yong hu, bing cheng wei nian shou ru chao guo 550 yi mei yuan de shang ye di guo. 6 yue 18 ri, Facebook xuan bu Libra ji hua, cheng wei" gu dian" hu lian wang zhong di yi ge shi shui jia mi huo bi de gong si. ju tou ru chang, zai jin rong jie ke ji jie qu kuai lian chuang ye qun jian guan ji gou quan ceng, jun yin fa lian yi.,," bi quan" ren shi he qu kuai lian cong ye zhe bei gan gu wu, jiang qi shi wei zhu liu she hui jie na jia mi huo bi de li cheng bei shi jian, ye gei zao yu xin yong zhi yi de qu kuai lian chuang ye da le qiang xin zhen chuan tong hua er jie jin rong ji gou gan dao ya li, chu le jing ti gui gu ke ji ju tou qiang shi jin rong fu wu ye wu zhi wai, ye dan xin chao da ti liang shu zi huo bi liu dong, kong rao luan jin rong zhi xu.,, wai jie tan tao Facebook" fa bi" zhen shi mu di de tong shi, ye zai guan ce yi chang" shi yan" zai shu zi jing ji shi dai, qu kuai lian ru he shi xian chao da ti liang de di cheng ben qie an quan de jia zhi jiao huan dang ji shu gai bian shang ye xie tong fang shi zhi ji, ping tai xing gong si yao ru he ping heng kong zhi li he kai fang xing, ying dui shi chang jing zheng bing bao chi chuang xin huo li yi ji zai mian lin ge guo shu ju he jin rong jian guan de fu za huan jing xia, Facebook de shi fan xiao ying, ke neng wei jia mi huo bi de wei lai fa zhan, hua ding zen yang de lu jing he bian jie, you gei chuang ye zhe he jing zheng dui shou liu xia nei xie tan suo de kong jian.,, zai ju li Libra zhen zheng dan sheng de qian ye, ma ke zha ke bo ge wei yu wu tai zhong xin, ta si hu huai chuai zhe yi fen rang Facebook bian de geng hao de fang an, dan jie jue wen ti de tong shi, ye zheng zai jie kai geng duo xin de zhi yi.,, Libra xiang mu shi ru he dan sheng de,, zai mei guo lian xian za zhi de bao dao ban ben zhong, shi ren ji shi tong xin ye wu Facebook Messenger zhu guan de da wei ma ku si David Marcus shi Libra xiang mu bei hou de guan jian ren wu.,, 2017 nian mo de duo mi ni jia gong he guo hai tan shang, da wei ma ku si David Marcus zai xiu jia shi si kao yi ge chang qi ying rao de wen ti: ru he jian li yi ge huo bi hu lian wang yi ge quan qiu wu jian xi de huo bi wang luo, ke jiang shi jie shang wu fa huo de yin hang fu wu de shou ji yong hu na ru zhe ge wang lu. zai si kao de guo cheng zhong, da wei ma ku si jue de Facebook ying gai kai shi jian li zi ji de jia mi huo bi.,, ta gei ma ke zha ke bo ge fa qu duan xin, shou dao hou zhe ji ji de hui fu.,, dang shi, Facebook yi jing zai ji shi tong xin chan pin zhong tui chu zhuan zhang gong neng, kai shi zhi zhi chi mei guo di qu, liang nian hou tuo zhan zhi ou zhou. zhu guan tong xin ye wu de ma ku si wu yi zai kai tuo zhi fu lei xin chan pin fang mian ju you feng fu de ye nei jing yan.,, ma ku si ceng shi mei guo zhi fu ye ju tou Paypal zong cai, zai ren qi jian Paypal shou gou dian dui dian zhi fu gong si Venmo mu gong si Briantree. Venmo mu qian yong hu chao guo 4 qian wan, shi mei guo nian qing ren zhong liu xing de xiao e zhuan zhang lei APP. dan he Paypal de luo ji bu tong, ping tai xing de Facebook bu xu yao zhi jie jiang zhi fu bian xian, zhi xu yao ba yong hu suo ding zai zi ji de ping tai shang, jiu ke yi tong guo zhu ying ye wu guang gao huo de feng hou shou ru.,, ma ku si jian yi Facebook jin ru jia mi huo bi ling yu zhi ji, zheng zhi gong si zai ou mei di qu zao yu yong hu zeng zhang ting zhi de kun jing zhong. lan yong shu ju chou wen chi xu fa jiao hou, Facebook bu jin zao yu ou mei yu lun guang fan zhi yi, er qie mian lin geng yan ke de jian guan huan jing.,, 2018 nian er ji du dao lai de ou zhou" tong yong shu ju bao hu tiao li" GDPR, po shi Facebook tiao zheng yin si zheng ce, rang yong hu jue ding zi ji de shu ju ru he bei shou ji. zhe jiang ying xiang Facebook yi hai liang shu ju fen xi jin xing jing zhun guang gao tui song de he xin ying shou luo ji.,, Facebook de zhang men ma ke zha ke bo ge xu yao yi fen jie jue fang an xun zhao xin de yong hu, bing zai ou mei zhu yao shi chang chong xin jian li xin ren.,, sui zhe qu kuai lian ji shu zhu jian cong bi te bi xi tong zhong bo li chu lai, qi gong shi ji zhi mi ma xue yuan li he fen bu shi shu ju cun chu zheng zai jin xing da gui mo de hang ye ying yong tan suo, Facebook si hu zhao dao le lu jing.,, 2018 nian 1 yue de ge ren nian du mu biao gong kai xin shang, ma ke zha ke bo ge biao shi:" shi jie zheng chu xian yi xie zhong yao de fan qu shi bi ru jia mi ji shu he jia mi huo bi cong zhong xin hua de xi tong zhong huo qu li liang, bing jiang qi chong xin zhi yu ren men shou zhong. dan ta men you ke neng geng nan kong zhi. wo you xing qu shen ru yan jiu zhei xie ji shu de ji ji he xiao ji fang mian, yi ji ru he zui hao di zai wo men de fu wu zhong shi yong ta men.",, dang shi, hai mei you duo shao ren liao dao, Facebook zai 18 ge yue zhi hou xuan bu le zi ji qian tou de Libra ji hua jian li yi tao jian dan de wu guo jie de huo bi he wei shu shi yi ren fu wu de jin rong ji chu she shi.,, gen ju Libra bai pi shu," quan qiu reng you 17 yi cheng nian ren wei jie chu dao jin rong xi tong, wu fa xiang shou chuan tong yin hang ti gong de jin rong fu wu, er zhe dang zhong, you 10 yi ren yong you shou ji, jin 5 yi ren ke yi shang wang". ru guo Libra de ji chu she shi ke yi ru yuan da jian, jiang you zhu yu Facebook zai fei zhou la mei deng qian fa da guo jia de yong hu zeng zhang. de yi yu" wang luo xiao ying" de Facebook mei xi na yi ge xin de yong hu, bu jin jin shi jian li yi ceng dan yi lian xi, er jiang zeng jia zheng ge" wang luo" de jia zhi.,, zai ma ku si zhu dong qing ying huo de shou ken zhi hou, bian kai shi xun su jin xing xiang mu tui jin.,,, ling ying zi liao xian shi, 2018 nian 5 yue kai shi, ma ku si zai yi nian duo shi jian li de zhi wei miao shu shi" tan suo qu kuai lian",, zai zhi hou de ji ge yue zhong, da wei ma ku si zai gong si nei wai bu lu xu zhao mu le 100 ming duo gong cheng shi, bing zai Facebook de ban gong lou li mi de yi chu xiang dui pian pi de ban gong chang suo. da wei ma ku si tong shi gu yong le bu fen jing ji xue jia he shu xi jian guan de lv shi ren yuan. zhe ge xin jin da jian tuan dui mian lin zhe zha ke bo ge ti chu de liang ge nan ti: yi lai, ru he yong qu kuai lian ji shu da jian yi ge quan qiu xing de jia mi huo bi, you qi guan zhao quan qiu reng mei you yin hang fu wu de ren qun er lai, ru he rang yong hu fang xin shi yong.,, Libra de fen quan zhi li tan lu,, Libra xiang mu gei chu de da an, jiu shi fen quan zhi li jie gou Libra you Facebook zi gong si Calibra da jian, dan bing bu dan chun you Facebook zhi li.,, he wai jie ceng jing cai ce de you Facebook zhi jie" fa bi" bu tong, bai pi shu zhong cheng, Libra you du li de fei ying li xing cheng yuan zhi zu zhi Libra xie hui fu ze zhi li, zong bu she zai rui shi ri nei wa. yi chu shi hui yuan gong tong guan li wai jia yan zheng xu ke qu kuai lian qi bu de jia gou, jing guo jing xin she ji. yi lai, yi ping quan de zi tai hui ying qian zai yong hu dui Facebook kong lan yong yong hu jin rong shu ju de zhi yi er lai, gei yun xing chu qi, ke neng chu xian de" hun luan" ti gong" huan chong qi", bao kuo ke neng de hei ke gong ji huo xi tong xing feng xian san lai, zai yun xing chu qi, you ben shen yi jing ju bei she hui gong xin du he ying xiang li de bu fen hang ye ju tou huo fei ying li ji gou dan ren chao ji jie dian de yan zheng fang, gei jian guan ti gong zhua shou.,, mu qian, Libra yi you 28 ming hui yuan, bao kuo jin rong fu wu ju tou wan shi da ka da che ying yong Uber yin yue ying yong Spotify yi ji tou zi ji gou Union Square Ventures deng.,, bai pi shu zhong pi lu, Libra ji hua zai 2020 nian shang ban nian jiang xi na gong tong zhi li de 100 ming chu shi hui yuan, mei ge hui yuan tou piao quan bu chao guo 1. Facebook de zi gong si Calibra ye jiang zhi yong you 1 de tou piao quan.,, leng jing cha xun rui shi gong shang xin xi xian shi, Facebook zai 2019 nian 5 yue 2 ri zhu ce yi jia jin rong ke ji gong si ming wei" Libra Network LLC Libra wang luo", gai you xian ze ren gong si de ye wu fan wei bao kuo" xun qiu kai fa yu tou zi huo dong he shu ju fen xi xiang guan de ruan jian he ji chu she shi, yi ji yu jin rong he ji shu xiang guan de qi ta fu wu, bao kuo tou zi zhi fu rong zi shen fen guan li shu ju fen xi qu kuai lian deng. zai rui shi zhu ce gong si jin yi bu zai fa lv kuang jia shang he Facebook you suo qu fen.,,, tu: Facebook yu 2019 nian 5 yue zai rui shi zhu ce Libra Network you xian ze ren gong si,, rui shi MME lv shi shi wu suo he huo ren Martin Eckert dui leng jing biao shi, Libra xiang mu zhi suo yi xuan ze yi rui shi wei zong bu, you duo chong yuan yin zao cheng. chu le yin wei rui shi zuo wei zhong li guo, fa lv ti xi xiang dui wen ding qie ke yu jian, ye yin wei" rui shi ju you zhu zhong yin si de chuan tong". tong shi, rui shi jian guan fang zheng ji ji yan jiu bing hui ying xin shang ye mo shi ke neng dai lai de fa lv tiao zhan, dui qu kuai lian chuang ye you hao," rui shi pian xiang yu jiang qu kuai lian fa lv na ru xian you de min shi he jin rong shi chang fa lv ti xi zhong, er bu shi fen kai guan li".,, Martin Eckert tong shi biao shi, zai Facebook qian tou cheng li Libra bing xi yin da gong si cheng wei xie hui chu shi hui yuan zhi hou, rui shi jiang dui qi ta quan qiu ju tou gong si chan sheng xi yin li.,, dan yi xie hui de fang shi da jian jia gou, wu fa da xiao ren men dui Facebook neng fou zhen zheng bei qi zhi heng de zhi yi, te bie shi zai xie hui zhu guan ren Managing Director zhi wei reng kong que de qing kuang xia, xie hui de bu fen he xin gong zuo ren yuan de xin shui you Facebook ti qian zhi fu.,, Libra xiang mu di lian he chuang shi ren Facebook zi gong si Calibra zhu guan ma ku si zai mian dui wai mei cai fang shi cheng ren, wei le rang xiang mu qi bu, xie hui xu yao xian gu yong yi xie ren lai tui dong jin zhan, zhu dao fang Facebook zai xian jie duan cheng dan geng da de ze ren, dan tong shi bao zheng" Facebook bu hui xiang xie hui kong jiang ren he gu yuan", zai 2020 nian Libra zheng shi tui chu zhi ji, Facebook jiang hui tui ju" hou pai", you xie hui cheng yuan xuan chu de guan li wei yuan hui lai zuo chu jue ce.,, zhi de guan zhu de shi, zai Libra xiang mu gong bu hou bu jiu, Facebook cong nian chu kai shi guan yu nei rong guan li xin fang an ye gong bu jin zhan, qi zhi li jie gou he Libra xiang mu cun zai xiang tong zhi chu. Facebook cheng, jiang cheng li du li de nei rong jian guan wei yuan hui.,, gai wei yuan hui you quan tui fan Facebook dui yong hu fa tie de jue ding, yi jie jue ping tai shang cun zai de cuo wu xin xi deng wen ti. Facebook jiang zai 8 yue fen qiao ding jian guan wei yuan de zhang cheng. zai ci qian de zheng qiu yi jian guo cheng zhong, wai jie ren wei, Facebook yuan gong bu ying gai jin ru jian du wei yuan hui.,, yi she li wai bu du li wei yuan hui de fang shi, dui ju you zheng yi qie you gong gong xing de ye wu, jin xing jian du he zhi heng, si hu shi zha ke bo ge mian dui wai bu zheng yi de jie jue zhi dao.,, ta tong shi mian lin zhe liang ji de ping jia: Facebook zheng zai tui xie ze ren, huo zhe zheng zai wei chao chu zi shen neng li de zheng yi xun zhao yi ge he yong hu jian guan yu hui he jie de kong jian. zuo chu she zhong fang an de ling yi mian shi zha ke bo ge cong wei da suan fang qi gong gu Facebook de shi chang di wei.,, zai 6 yue mo jin xing de a si peng chuang yi jie shang, bei wen dao" ru he li jie Facebook si hu zheng zai yong zi ji de biao zhun jian guan zi ji" de shi hou shi, shen zhuo biao zhi xing hui se T xu niu zai ku de zha ke bo ge biao shi, chang yuan lai kan, geng feng fu de fa gui jiang yong yu pan duan ye wu de bian jie," dan wo men bu hui deng".,, ju tou ru chang, yin hang huang zhang,, dui yu geng wei ji jin de qu kuai lian chuang ye zhe lai shuo, dui ju tou ru chang de tai du, ai hen jiao zhi.,, rui shi de qu kuai lian jiao yi suo Lykke chuang shi ren li cha de ou er sen Richard Olsen dui leng jing biao shi, Libra xiang mu shi" jiu ping zhuang xin jiu", zai ji shu shang que shao tu po xing chuang xin," zhi you zai he xin shang yong bao jin rong ke ji chuang xin, cai ke neng da gui mo pu ji. Libra bing mei you cong gen ben shang jie jue wen ti".,, li cha de deng qu kuai lian chuang ye ren yuan gan dao que fa xin yi, shi yin wei Libra you shao shu chao ji jie dian yan zheng he shou quan de si you lian meng lian qi bu, er bu shi yi kai shi jiu cai yong geng wei jun quan de fei xu ke xing qu kuai lian, lei si ni ming gong kai yan zheng wu shen zha de bi te bi.,, dan li cha de ou er sen Richard Olsen tong shi cheng ren, Facebook ru ci gui mo de gong si jin ru qu kuai lian ling yu, ben shen jiu ju you" xin hao yi yi"," jiu xiang shi gei suo you quan qiu de da gong si chui xiang hao jiao yi yang, da jia kai shi chong xin shen shi zi ji de zhan lue, bing ping gu qu kuai lian dui yu ta men hang ye de ying xiang".,, zui xian gan shou dao Libra dai lai ya po gan de shi chuan tong de hua er jie jin rong ji gou.,, ji ji yong bao shu zi jing ji de mei guo zui da yin hang mo gen da tong da yue yong you 5000 wan shu zi ke hu. er zuo yong 20 yi yue huo yong hu de Facebook ke yi gei Libra xiang mu ti gong yuan gao yu 5000 wan de la xin liang. zai Libra xiang mu gong bu dang zhou, niu yue ju xing de cai fu tou nao feng bao lun tan shang, hua qi yin hang CEO Michael Corbat gong kai biao shi, zai Libra xiang mu zheng shi xuan bu zhi qian cong wei lian xi guo zi ji de yin hang, tong shi cheng jia mi huo bi de wen ti zhi yi shi zi jin lai yuan de bu tou ming, jiang bu fu he he gui yao qiu. zai Libra xie hui mu qian ji jie de 28 ming chu shi cheng yuan zhong shang mei you ren he yin hang.,, ru guo Libra xiang mu shun li da jian, jiang cong chuan tong de jin rong ye wu zhong fen shi dan gao.,, yi kua jing hui kuan wei li, shi jie yin hang zai 2018 nian nian mo de bao gao cheng, quan qiu hai wai wu gong zhe kua jing hui kuan zi jin da dao 6890 yi mei yuan, qi zhong fa zhan zhong guo jia de wu gong kua jing hui kuan jin e da dao 5280 yi mei yuan. dan yin wei zhe pi ren qun wang wang wei zhong di shou ru ren qun, qie hui wang jin rong fu wu bu fa da de pian yuan di qu, yin er xu jing guo dai li xing huo fu wu shang de duo ci" jie li" dao zhi cheng ben ju gao bu xia. li ru, xi lian hui kuan huo su hui jin de hui kuan shou fei da yue zai 7 10 zuo you. ru guo jie zhu qu kuai lian he jia mi huo bi jie jue hu xin he qing suan de wen ti, ji shi jiao yi fei yong zhi shou qu 1, ye ke yi dai lai ke guan de shou ru.,, Facebook shang wei tou lu, ji hua tong Libra yi tong tui chu de dian zi qian bao Calibra de zhuan zhang huo zhi fu shou fei, dan biao shi hui di qie tou ming. er ji shi bu shou fei, yin wei Calibra qian bao ke yi qian ru Messenger Instagram deng qi xia chan pin, ye ke yi rang Facebook shen ru geng duo yong hu de xiao fei sheng huo.,, jian guan tai du jiang hua ding ye wu bian jie,, jian guan de tai du, jiang shi jue ding Facebook jia mi huo bi xiang mu" tan xian jiang yu" de guan jian.,, wei tie jin he gui yao qiu, zai Libra de she ji shang, Facebook yi jing mai xia fu bi. yi lai, ma ku si yi zai qiang diao, Libra zhi shi jiao yi mei jie, he bi te bi mu di bu tong er lai, yi ju you nei zai jia zhi de zi chan chu bei zuo wei hou dun, xue ruo tou ji de ke neng san lai, yi lian meng de fang shi zhi li, bing xuan chuan rang 17 yi wu fa xiang shou chuan tong yin hang fu wu de ren huo de jin rong fu wu, rang Facebook si hu chu zai" zhong li" shen zhi" gong yi" de li chang. dan wai jie wu fa hu shi Facebook ben shen shang shi gong si zhu li de shu xing, yi ji ceng jing lan yong shu ju de li shi.,, mei guo rui ze lv shi shi wu suo Reid amp Wise de lv shi Jonathan Dunsmoor dui leng jing biao shi, jin guan Facebook yi" kuai su xing dong, da po cheng gui Move Fast and break things" wei xin tiao, dan zai qu kuai lian ling yu chuang xin bu neng zhi qiu su du," yi dan si yao diu shi, huo xi tong bei gong po, zheng ge hang ye dou jiang shou dao chong ji".,, Jonathan shi mei guo zheng quan fa lv shi, jin xie nian ye wei shu zi huo bi chu chuang gong si jin xing he gui fang mian di fa lv zi xun.,, Jonathan Dunsmoor cheng, zui ling ren guan zhu de jiang shi Libra ru he ying dui ge guo jian guan, zai he gui de tiao jian xia, shun li yun ying. zai mei guo, mei guo zheng jian hui SEC shang pin qi huo jiao yi wei yuan hui CFTC shui wu ju IRS, jun yi bu tong de jiao du kan dai jia mi zi chan, bing ge si qi zhi," bi ru, ru guo bei kan zuo shi da zong shang pin shu xing de shi yong xing dai bi Utility Token, hui shou dao CFTC de shen shi, er ru guo ju you fen hong tou piao huo fen fa gong neng di zheng quan xing dai bi Security Token ze zai mei guo zheng jian hui de shen zha fan wei zhi nei.",, shang zhou de huo bi zheng ce xin wen fa bu hui shang, dang wen ji dui Facebook jia mi huo bi kan fa shi, mei lian chu zhu xi bao wei er yi fang mian biao shi, xi wang Facebook zai tui jin guo cheng zhong fu he he gui de zui gao yao qiu, dan tong shi ren wei, mu qian jia mi huo bi bing bu hui ying xiang yang hang huo bi zheng ce de shi shi. tou zi ren he fen xi shi ye zai deng dai qi ta jian guan ji gou de tai du, yi pan ding Facebook de jin rong fu wu chang shi, dao di neng gou zou duo yuan.,, guo hui shan bu fen yi yuan dui Facebook huo jie zhu jia mi huo bi ji xu gong gu shi chang di wei de zuo fa, biao shi dan you.,, mei guo guo hui zhong yi yuan jin rong fu wu wei yuan hui zhu xi wo te si biao shi, Facebook ying ting zhi kai fa gai xiang mu, zhi dao huo de guo hui he jian guan ji gou fu he," Facebook yong you shu shi yi ren de shu ju, bing yi zai biao shi wu shi zhei xie shu ju de bao hu he jin shen shi yong, sui zhe jia mi huo bi de xuan bu, Facebook zheng zai ji xu bu shou xian zhi de kuo zhang, bing jiang fu gai fan wei ji xu kuo zhan dao qi yong hu de sheng huo zhong".,, can yi yuan yin hang wei yuan hui cheng yuan xie luo de bu lang tong guo sheng ming cheng:" Facebook yi jing guo yu pang da guo yu qiang da, wo men bu neng yun xu Facebook zai mei you jian du de qing kuang xia cong rui shi yin hang zhang hu zhong, yun xing feng xian geng gao de xin jia mi huo bi.",, shang shu liang ge wei yuan hui jiang fen bie zai 7 yue 16 ri he 7 yue 17 ri dui Facebook qian tou de Libra xiang mu ju xing guo hui ting zheng, ye xian shi fa lv zhi ding zhe dui ju tou ru chang jia mi huo bi de jing ti, te bie zai fan xi qian he shu ju yin si bao hu fang mian cha lou bu que de qi wang. Libra xiang mu di lian he chuang zao ren da wei ma ku si cheng, yuan yi chu xi jie shou zhi xun, mu qian shang bu qing chu zha ke bo ge shi fou yi tong chu xi.,, zai 2019 nian 3 yue, mian dui shu ju lan yong de zhi yi, ma ke zha ke bo ge ceng jing gong kai biao tai, huan ying jian guan. zhe wei ceng jing zai IPO lu yan shi ye xi guan hui se mao shan er bei zhi yi" ao man zi wo" de chuang ye zhe, yi jing xue hui zai bi yao de chang he chuan shang xi zhuang, yi xian shi cheng shu ke xin de yi mian.,,, zha ke bo ge ceng jing zai 2018 nian 4 yue jiu shu ju xie lou chou wen fu guo hui jie shou ting zheng zhi xun

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